1. D Sound - AHD Symbol /d/
The Sound /d/
To make the sound /d/ place the tip of the tongue on the alveolar ridge and make a voiced sound. Hold the /d/ slightly at the beginning of a word, then release it with the next sound.
At the end of the words, before consonants, hold your tongue briefly on the alveolar ridge, then go on to the next word.
1. Tell dad to drive.
2. The bed belongs to me.
3. The lid fell off.
4. When does the tide come in?
5. The code number is on the back.
To make the sound of flap between vowels and after the consonant /r/, tap the tongue quickly on the palate without holding it, then go on to the next vowel. Note that this sound is often spelled with the letters dd, t, and tt.
* To make the regular past tense, add /d/ to verbs that end in a vowel sound or one of the voiced consonants /b/, /g/, /v/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /z/, /w/, or /y/. Even though there is a letter e before the letter d, do not make a vowel sound before the /d/. The e is silent.
* Add the ustressed vowel /&/ plus /d/ to verbs ending with the sound /d/ or /t/ (some regions add the /id/ sound). The verb now has one more syllable
* A pronoun plus '/d/ forms contraction for the modals had and would. Be careful to NOT use the unstressed vowel /&/ here, which would add another syllable to the word.
1. I'd been there before. (I had been there before.)
2. They'd called us earlier (They had called us earlier.)
3. We'd better stay. (We had better stay.)
4. You'd better not do that. (you had better not do that.)
5. I'd help you if I could. (I would help you if I could.)
6. He'd come if he wanted to. (He would come if he wanted to.)
7. We'd like a drink. (He would like a drink.)
1. Dan drove us around before dinner.
2. Does Donna have a dollar?
3. David didn't do the dishes.
4. He said it.
5. I got it.
6. He did it.
7. That bed is old.
8. She had a bad cold.
9. He ate a bit of butter.
10. Fred is a forty-year-old veteran.
11. Patty sat on the little ladder.
12. Eddy's thirty today.
13. It's a beautiful city, but it's so dirty!
* The letter d followed by the sound /yoo-/ is usually pronounced /j/.
* The letter d is silent in the following words.
Listen to the follwing poem featuring the final past tense sounds /t/,/d/, and /&d/ or /i(d/.
The Surprise Party
They shopped, spent, cooked, ate,
Drank, gossiped, laughed, baked.
Stopped and talked.
Worked and walked.
They planned, saved, sewed, schemed,
Progrmmed, whispered, giggled, dreamed,
Enjoyed and played.
A party made.
/&d/ or /id/
They decoreated and waited.
Then shouted and celebrated.
Now listen to a tongue twister that features the sounds /t/ and /d/.
A tutor who tooted the flute
Tried to teach two young tooters to toot,
Said the two to the tutor:
"Is it harder to toot,
or to tutor two tooters to toot?"
2. F Sound - AHD Symbol /f/
if - forget - fish - faith
father - file - coffee - field
fail - fever - forth - final
awful - find - reef - effort - leaf - finish
1. Don't let your faith fail you now!
2. The reef is full of fish today.
3. It took effort to finish the job.
4. Father goes back and forth from home to work.
5. What's the final score?
6. The other referee has a fever today.
7. How do you find your fish?
8. This fence has been effaced again.
9. Your field is full of jobs.
10. Few people are so forgetful.
11. You need to fight for your friends.
12. Where did you file the folder?
3. H Sound - AHD Symbol /h/
The sound /h/
To make the sound /h/, keep your tongue free and force air from the throat witha voiceless sound.
NOTE: When the words he, her, his, him, and has are unstressed, the /h/ sound is often not pronounced.
I don't know where (h)e is.
He gave it to (h)er yesterday.
I haven't seen (h)im.
Does (h)e have any hope?
Hi! What's your hurry?
Howard is hiding in Ohio.
They have a huge hotel at Lake Tahoe.
Her husband brought home a huge mahogany hutch.
The letter h is silent in the following examples.
night, fight, might, light, ...
though, through, ..
caught, bought, ...
4. CH Sound - AHD Symbol - /ch/
J Sound - AHD Symbol /j/
The Sounds /ch/ and /j/
The Sound CH
To make the sound /ch/, place the center of the tongue on the palate; stop the air completely, then release it abruptly with a voiceless sound.
(Affricate: A complex speech sound consisting of a stop consonant followed by a fricative; for example, the initial sounds of child and joy. Also called affricative.)
*When a word or syllable beginning with the sound /yoo-/ follow the sound /t/, a /ch/ sound is formed
1. The teacher chose Chinese Checkers for the children.
2. Charles and Chuck lunched on cheese and chips.
3. Couldn't you eat your lunch, and then watch the match?
4. Didn't you watch the speech on channel 7?
5. I can't let you exchange the watch.
** The letter combination ch is silent in YACHT
The Sound J
To make the sound /j/, place the center of the tongue against the palate, stop the air completely, then release it abruptly with a voiced sound.
** The sound /d/ followed by /yoo-/ is pronounced / j/.
*** Congratulation = k&n gra(ch& la- sh&n if pronounced /t/
k&n gra(j & la- sh&n if pronounced with /d/
1. I wanted you to come to my graduation.
2. Jim's a junior, majoring in education.
3. Would you please register at the gym?
4. Jill, in her jeans, jumped into her jeep.
5. Janice, did you see the soldier?
5. K Sound - AHD Symbol /k/
G Sound - AHD Symbol /g/
The Sounds k and g
To pronounce /k/, bring the back of the tongue to the velum, stop the air completely, then release it with a voiceless sound.
* At the beginning of words, release /k/ with a puff of air. To make sure the puff of air is strong enough, hold a small piece of paper in front of your mouth as you say the following words. The paper should move considerably.
* Make the same puff of air when a word ends in another consonant plus /k/.
* Do NOT make the puff of air when /k/ is followed by the sound /w/.
* Do NOT make the puff when /k/ occurs in the middle of a word before a vowel sound.
* When /k/ occurs just after the sound /s/, there is NO puff of air.
* When /k/ occurs just before another consonant, bring the back of the tongue to the velum, stop the air briefly, but do not release it; then make the next sound.
1. Pick the music up tomorrow.
2. Look at the black bike over there.
3. I'll make a cake in the morning.
4. Did Rick rake the leaves?
5. Luke fell off his bike and scraped his skin.
* When /k/ is the last sound in a word or sentence, pronounce it with or without the puff of air. There is no difference in meaning.
With the puff / Without the puff
That's a fake.
I have a stomachache.
1. Can you cut the cake for me?
2. Carolyn couldn't come to the concert.
3. His wicked uncle has no scruples.
4. Mike and Jack can work quickly.
5. He walks to the bank every day.
6. They talked and asked questions.
* About the letters k and c
The letter k is not pronounced in the following words.
The letter c is silent in the following word
The Sound /g/
To make the sound /g/, bring the back of the tongue to the velum, stop the air briefly, then release it with a voiced sound.
1. Go get your grandmother's glasses.
2. Peggy begged to go to the art gallery.
3. Gloria gives gracious get-togethers.
4. Please give me eight gallons of gas.
5. Maggie bagged all the groceries.
6. Gayle dragged the rugged luggage through the gate.
Contrasting Sound Practice
Compare /g/ and /k/
cot / got
cane / gain
came / game
come / gum
clean / glean
curl / girl
rack / rag
back / bag
pick / pig
hawk / hog
bicker / bigger
sacked / sagged
tacked, tact / tagged
1. Gary got a clean rag.
Gary got a clean rack.
2. He is just like a hawk.
He is just like a hog.
3. We need the glue.
We need the clue.
4. Please put it in the back.
Please put it in the bag.
* The letter g after the letter n has the sound /ng/
* The sound g is not pronounced in the following words.
1. Gary got a clean rag.
2. He is just like a hawk.
3. We need the glue. Please put it in the back.
6. L Sound - AHD Symbol /l/
1. Leave Larry alone!
2. Look at that lovely lighthouse.
3. Literature lives at the library.
4. The address is Eleven Ten Laurel Lane.
5. Take the elevator up to the Old Elk Lodge.
6. Turn down the television; I'm on the telephone.
Ending L (Velarized)
all - cell
Ralph - will
owl - Bill
roll - milk
will - hello
full - tall
pull - pill - gel
1. Bill is getting tall.
2. Make the call on your cell phone.
3. Sorry, but we're all full.
4. All this milk is fresh.
5. Sailing is a great way to travel.
6. Ellen called while you were out.
Compare Initial L and ending L
let - call
lie - pull
like - well
law - all
left - bell
last - will
letter - fill
live - Carol
1. Carol likes to study law.
2. Larry left all the letters here.
3. Jill lives on Bell Lane.
4. Let me call a cab.
5. Has Carol called lately?
6. Look, you left your wallet on the table.
7. M sound - ADH Symbol /m/
1. It's so hot this summer.
2. No matter what, Tom is humble.
3. My foot is so numb, I can't even move it.
4. What's on the rim of this mountain?
5. Mary always needs a reminder.
6. Don't give the bum any more money.
7. Don't mention it.
8. I saw that man a minute ago.
9. What time is Mr. Wright coming?
10. It seems warm today.
11. Mrs. Martin called me this morning.
8. N Sound - AHD Symbol /n/
1. The men live in number nine.
2. Never say never.
3. No one can run faster than Dan.
4. We'd never taken a night cruise on the Nile!
5. How many inches are in nine feet?
6. We never know when we'll see you.
7. The car is running fine now.
8. Do you know my number?
9. How many women won the game?
10. There's a ninety percent chance of rain.
9. B Sound - AHD Symbol /p/
B Sound - AHD Symbol /b/
The Sounds /p/ and /b/
The Sound /p/
To make the sound /p/, put your lips together firmly, stop the air completely, when pop the lips open. Do not make a vocal sound.
At the beginning of the words, release /p/ with a puff of air. To be sure the puff of air is strong enough, place a small piece of paper in front of your mouth when pronouncing the following words. The paper sould move considerably.
Make th same puff of air when a word wnds in another consonant plus /p/.
Do NOT make the puff of air when /p/ occurs in the midle of a word before a vowel sound.
Do NOT make the puff of air when /p/ directly follows the /s/ at the beginning or in the middle of a word.
When /p/ is the last sound in a word and is followed by another word, do NOT pop your lips open. Bring the lips together firmly, making no vocal sound, then say the next word.
Put the top down.
I hope to stop them.
It's up there.
The map you gave me is helpful.
When /p/ is the last sound, make it either with or without the puff of air. There is no difference in meaning.
With the puff
Read the map.
Let's so on a trip.
I need some sleep.
Never give up.
Without the puff
Read the map.
Let's so on a trip.
I need some sleep.
Never give up.
Please prepare the pizza for the party.
Pat helped me pick up the papers.
Put the stamps on the package.
Mr. Bishop paid for the lamp in April.
Phillip didn't give me a map.
Penny has the hiccoughs.
* The letter p followed by the letter h is usually pronounced /f/.
** The letter p is silent (not pronounced) in the following words.
The Sound /b/
To pronounce /b/, place your lips together firmly; stop the air completely, and make a voiced sound.
1. Billy grabbed the sobbing baby.
2. The bushes and bulbs are about to bloom.
3. Bob was bleeding, and his bones were broken.
4. Maybe Elizabeth brags a bit.
* The letter b is silent in the following words.
Contrasting Sound Practice
Comparing the sound /p/ with the sound /b/
pin - bin
pet - bet
pack - back
pole - bowl
push - bush
pour (pore) - bore (boar)
punch - bunch
prayed - braid
repel - rebel
rapid - rabid
roped - robed
ripped - ribbed
pare (pair, pear) - bare (bear)
Listening Exercise: Which one do you hear?
A: I can't pare it.
B: I can't bear it.
A: Paul needs a push in front of his house.
B: Paul needs a bush in front of his house.
A: We bought a big pole.
B. We bought a big bowl.
A: Patty has some new cups.
B: Patty has some new cubs.
10. R Sound - AHD Symbol /r/
1. The arrow raced to its target.
2. Please don’t raid the refrigerator.
3. The Red Anchor Restaurant is in the Harbor.
4. The radio has the real news.
5. I think I took a wrong turn.
6. Robert prefers to ride on the right side.
7. Raymond wrote the red book.
11. S Sound - AHD Symbol /s/
1. This soda is too sweet.
2. Would you like soup or salad?
3. Please submit the forms when you complete the tasks.
4. I bought this dress on sale.
5. Wes likes to solve crimes.
6. Sue, this rice is super!
12. T Sound - ADH Symbol /t/
The Sound T /t/
Place the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, stop the air completely, then release the air. Do NOT make a vocal sound.
When a word begins with /t/, make the sound with a noisy puff of air. To be sure the puff of air is strong enough, place a small piece of paper in front of your mouth when pronouncing the following words. The paper should move considerably.
tray* (Voiceless r)
twin* (Voiceless w)
Make the same noisy puff when a word ends in another consonant sound plus /t/.
* Make the same noisy puff for -st or -est at the end of an adjective to make the superlative form.
Note: The past tense marker, -ed, is pronounced /t/, with the puff of air, when the verb ends in a voiceless consonant sound such as /p/, /k/, /ch/, /f/, /sh/, /s/, or /ks/. Be careful not to make a vowel sound before the /t/.
taped ...... /ta-pt/
picked ..... /pi(kt/
watched ... /wo(cht/
laughed .... /la(ft/
washed .... /wo(sht/
passed ..... /pa(st/
faxed ....... /fa(kst/
* Do NOT make the puff of air when /t/ follows /s/ at the beginning of a syllable.
* To pronounce /t/ just before the sound /s/ at the end of words, tap the tip of your tongue on the palate (Unstressed T), then slide your tongue forward to make /s/.
* To produce the /t/ at the end of words that occur before words beginning with a consonant, tap your tongue on the alveolar ridge, stop the vocal sound, then go on to the next word.
1. She ate three hot dogs.
2. The fat cat sat down on the mat.
3. I'll bet she got the hat with that money.
4. I met them at the market.
* In certain words, the /t/ is unreleased as above, then followed by the unstressed vowel sound /&/, then by the sound /n/ (Syllabic N).
* When the last word you say ends in the sound /t/, pronounce it either with or without the puff of air. There is no difference in meaning.
With the puff and without the puff of air.
* He sat on his hat.
* She put on her coat.
* They came to visit.
* He didn't eat.
* I didn't say that.
1. Those tenants tore up the apartment.
2. Leave the stew on the stove for two minutes.
3. Just a minute, please.
4. I put the buttons in my pocket.
5. Stand up straight.
6. Janet washed her skirt and two t-shirts.
7. She wished she had polished her boots.
8. The last time I went to that store, I got lost.
Note: The letter t, when followed by the sound /yoo-/ is usually pronounced /ch/.
Examples: situation, ritual, factual, congratulations, let you, don't you, won't you, can't you, didn't you, wouldn't you
When the letter t occurs between vowels, it has one of the pronunciations of the sound flap/tap. To make this sound, tap the tongue quickly on the palate without holding it, then go on to the next vowel.
Examples: city, later, shorter, grated, subtle, little
* The letter t is silent in the following words.
13. V Sound - AHD Symbol /v/
1. Even the river is rising.
2. Tom is a very vivacious today.
3. The violets look so lovely in the sunlight.
4. There's such a variety of violence on TV.
5. Evelyn's dog is so vicious.
6. Do you like many vegetables?
7. Is your license valid in Vermont?
8. This view is unbelievable.
9. When did you visit Eve?
10. We vow to live in peace.
11. Have a cup of coffee.
14. W Sound - AHD Symbol /w/
Y Sound - AHD Symbol /y/
The Sounds /w/ and /y/
The Sounds /w/
To make the sound /w/, relax your tongue, then round your lips and press them back against the front of your teeth. Make a sound as you release your lips.
1. When will we go away?
2. The wind whistled in the woods.
3. Dwight and Duane went to Guam.
4. Why was there a war?
5. One of the twins walked twenty miles.
6. Wanda wore her white dress on Wednesday.
7. I went for a walk with Walter McGuire.
NOTE: The letter w is silent in the following words.
who, whom, whose, whole
wren, write, wrong
two, toward, knowledge
Why do we have an h in why,
and where, when, what, and white?
Well, there's a w in who, whose, and whole,
and write when the meaning is right.
Compare the sound /v/ with the sound /w/
vine / wine
very, vary / wary
veal / wheel, we'll
vent / went
vase / ways, weights
vow / wow
vile / while
veer / we're
vest / west
A: He took the veal.
B: He took the wheel.
A: It's in the vest.
B: It's in the west.
A: What's the vine like?
B: What's the wine like?
4. Veer to the left.
A: We're to the left
ANSWERS: B, A, B, B
The Sound /y/
To pronounce /y/, spread your tongue flat and toward the back of your mouth; do not let your tongue touch the palate. Next, make a wide smile with your lips and bring your tongue forward with a voiced sound.
yet / year
mayor / beyond
iron (i-y.. )
NOTE: When the sound /y/ is followed by the vowel /u/, the combination is exactly the same as the long vowel sound /yoo-/
use/ Utah / usual
May I use your iron?
Yes, you may use it any time.
He's a popular hockey player at the university this year.
The Miami lawyer was triumphant yesterday.
NOTE: The letter y is silent in the following words.
says / prayers
Contrasting sound Practice
Compare the sound /j/ and /y/
jeer / year
jello / yello
major / mayor
jam / yam
joke / yoke
jet / yet
gel / yell
jot / yacht
A: There's no juice.
B: There's no use.
A: My uncle is the major.
B: My uncle is the mayor.
A: Has he come by jet?
B: Has he come by yet?
A: Are you going to jail?
B: Are you going to Yale?
ANSWERS: B, A, B, A
15. Z Sound - AHD Symbol /z/
1. The temperature feels like it’s below zero.
2. Tuesday is the best day to visit the zoo.
3. Wednesday was his busiest day.
4. It is wise to rise early?
5. There’s a lot of noise because he’s very busy.
6. It’s easy to be lazy.
7. Where’s the folder that holds all my files?
8. Why is there so much haze today?
9. They always catch their planes on time.
16. SH Sound - AHD Symbol /sh/
1. Should I share my favorite chocolates?
2. The usher showed us to our seats.
3. Wash your hands after you finish that.
4. Those shoes are all the fashion.
5. Did I mention the shop on the corner?
6. Sharon is so shy.
7. Shout in that direction.
8. Wear your special shorts.
9. Some pushy people were shopping today.
10. Could you show us how to fish?
11. It sounds like she has whiplash.
17. ZH Sound - AHD /zh/
1. I need to have my vision measured soon.
2. It's a pleasure to meet you.
3. It's a fusion reactor.
4. There was confusion in the garage about the owner of the beige Sedan.
5. It's a simple problem of confusion.
6. The sky is azure blue today.
7. Is it casual day today?
18. NG Sound - AHD Symbol /ng/
Note: This sound only comes at the end of a syllable.
1. All these answers are wrong.
2. Let's sing a song before we go.
3. The phone is ringing.
4. How long will that pinging sound go on?
5. What's wrong with this thing?
6. Bring the tongs here, please.
7. There are too many dings in this car.
8. The bell just rang.
9. Did you bang on the door?
19. Voiced TH Sound - AHD Symbol /th/
Voiceless TH Sound - AHD Symbol /th/
TH: VOICED / VOICELESS PAIRS
this / with /
they / thought
there / through
1. She can’t breathe well in this kind of weather.
2. My skin feels smooth after I bathe.
3. Where did this other one come from?
4. Do you know whether they live there?
5. I’d rather not wear leather.
6. Either your father or your mother can sign this.
7. There were a lot of those books there.
1. Math is the one thing I don’t like.
2. He was once wealthy, but he lost everything.
3. We are nothing without ethics!
4. These warm baths a day are good therapy.
5. The path to the theater is open now.
6. Thanks for the thought!